BREADS OF THE WORLD

WORLD BREADS SPECIALITIES

GERMANY

 

BRETZEL

This well known German speciality dates back to the medieval era. Bretzel’s are made from white flour, leaven and milk. They are poached and sprinkled with sea salt before being baked in the oven which gives them their golden crust.

KUGELHOPT

A rich bread made with raisins, butter and eggs and is usually a lemon flavour. It is always made to the same shape , high and fluted.

LANDBROT

This rustic farm house loaf is a mixture of wheat and rye flour which gives it its light brown colour. The milk content is replaced by buttermilk which gives it a sweet & sour flavour.

MUESLIBROT

This dietetic bread is made, as its name indicates, from a Muesli cereal mix with added nuts and whole grains for a healthy diet.

 

GERMAN RYE BREAD

A densely textured bread with a strong acid taste, made with leaven and always containing some wheat.

PUMPERNICKEL

Made from 100% Rye flour, this is the darkest coloured bread in Europe. Its acidy taste and earthy aroma make it one of the most popular German breads.

ROGGENMISCHBROT

This rye bread also has quantised amounts of barley and oats making it very nourishing, there are numerous variations of this bread.

STOLLEN

This Christmas delight is made from candied or dry fruit with a marzipan centre and is always in an oval shape which represents the infant Jesus in his crib.

BELGIUM

 

LE PISTOLET

A small round loaf enriched with butter making it soft textured. An excellent breakfast bread or a 4 o’clock tea roll.

LE CRAMIQUE

Well known in Belgium but also in Northern France this enriched bread with raisins, butter and milk is either made from wholemeal flour which gives it a malt taste or white flour giving it a sweeter brioche taste or a mixture of the two together an almost sweet & sour flavour.

SPAIN

 

PAN GALLEGO

Speciality bread from Gallice, in a tart shape made from white, wholemeal flour with olive oil, this gives the bread a soft crumb. It’s sprinkled with pumpkin seeds, sun flower seeds or millet. The finishing decoration is always a star shape on the surface top.

EASTERN EUROPE

 

RUSSIAN BLACK BREAD

Made from rye flour with added fermented black treacle which enhances its black colour, this bread has a very fine crust and a compact crumb. Many variants exist in the Baltic region

HUNGARIAN POTATO BREAD

This bread has a very soft crumb with a slightly spicy taste. Made from white flour, leaven, salt, cumin and cooked mashed potatoes. The excess humidity from the potatoes is released into the dough which allows the bread to rise.

POLISH LEAVEN BREAD

A country loaf made from Rye flour, a popular adaptation of the rural farm house home made bake.

DARNISKY

This popular Russian bread is made from rye, wholemeal flour and leaven

BATON

This bread dates to the Russian revolution in 1917 when the state industrialised bread to feed the population

GREAT BRITAIN

 

BARA BRITH

This Welsh fruit bread consists of letting the fruit swell before adding them into the flour which can either be white or wholemeal.

WELSH TIN

Cooked in a tin, this bread is often used for toast, its fine crust and dense crumb make it very popular.

 

CORNISH SAFFRON CAKE

Made from leaven, dried fruit, spices and saffron and a generous amount of butter, this cake is one of the most famous in Britan.

 

HOT CROSS BUNS

Hot cross buns date back to the medieval era. Made with flour and enriched with eggs, raisins, nutmeg and cinnamon with a traditional cross on the top, they are eaten around the Easter period.

 

COTTAGE LOAF

One of the oldest known loaves in Britan, made with white flour with a fairly thick crust but difficult to find due to the fabrication time and the size of the oven.

 

CRUMPETS

Crumpets date back to the XVIII century and are made from white flour and leaven.

 

MUFFINS

English muffins have a fine crust with a dense crumb and are usually made from white flour.

 

SELKIRK BANNOCK

Coming from Selkirk in Scotland, this fruit loaf is today found all over the British Isles. Made with either candied or dried fruit with no spices at all, with lard or butter or as some recipes suggest a mixture or the two.

 

MORNING ROLLS

Also as baps they are always made from white flour and are flat and soft, ideal for bacon in the mornings.

GREEK ISLANDS

 

 

DAKTYLA

This popular farm house loaf contains corn flour which gives it its golden colour along with nigella. It is sprinkled with sesame seeds to complete it’s over all decoration.

 

PITTA

The most known of breads which is also found in the Middle Eastern countries. This supple flat bread is warmed slightly then cut in order to stuff fillings into its centre. It is made from white flour and can also have herbs added to the dough.

HOLLAND

 

KORNKRACKER

Kornkracker means broken wheat, and is made from wheat flour which contains cracked wheat. It is savoury and has a crisy texture.

FRUIT BREAD

Made from a mixture of different fours, barley, rye, malt it has dried fruit added to its dough and its crust is sprinkled with sugar granules.

CRISP BREAD

The Dutch, like the Scandinavians, love crispy breads, almost biscuits. Made from white flour with a slightly sugary taste, it is cooked until completely dried out.

IRELAND

 

IRISH SODA BREAD

This well known Irish bread made from malted wholemeal flour has a dense crumb and is a popular breakfast bread.

 

BARM BRACK

Made from white flour and with butter, eggs, fruit and sugar this bread also carries a custom of having a broad bean placed in it and whoever finds it will become engaged before the years end.

POTATO BREAD

The potato was the main food source in Ireland. The potato replaced a certain quantity of flour which was expensive. This gives the bread a great crust and a flavoursome taste, every bodies favourite.

ITALY

 

 

FOCACCIA

This flat bread was originally made with the left overs from other bread dough’s. Today it is made from white flour and olive oil, and then a number of additional ingredients can be added: Olives, herbs, onions, ham, cheese…

 

CIABATTA

This light, oval bread is appreciated world wide. Made from fermented dough, it requires a long kneading with a long rest which will give it flavour.

 

ROSETTA

The Rosetta is generally “soufflé”. The centre is often hallow as there is not a lot of crumb.

 

PANETTONE

This traditional Christmas cake originating from Milan is made with butter, Smyrna raisins, milk and eggs. It can also have candied fruit of chocolate in it too. It is very high and large but extremely light.

 

BREAD STICKS

Found on all Italian tables, these appetizer contents all ages, especially teething tots. Made from white flour with a touch of olive oil and can be sprinkled with sea salt, herbs or sesame seeds.

 

PUGLIESE

From Southern Italy, this white loaf with its fine crust and dense crumb is flavoured with olive oil and has become an Italian classic.

PORTUGAL

 

 

ROSQUILHA

Made with white flour this couronne formed bread is a crusty favourite for all occasions.

 

PAPOS SECOS

White bread rolls, which are steamed coked, with a soft crumb and light crust, ideal for breakfast.

 

BROA DE MILO

Originates from Northern Portugal, this corn bread with added wheat flour is golden coloured and served with soups and charcuteries.

SCANDINAVIA

 

 

RYE BREAD

There are many variations which take into account all tastes. Wheat flour gives a lighter flavour as it is mixed with melasses and malt extract which accounts for the dark colour. It is also frequently spiced with and fat content allowing a natural preservation.

LIMPA

Made mainly from rye although some wheat is added it is spicy and aromatic. Honey or melasses sweeten the sourness of the rye. It can be flavoured with orange, cardamom, fennel, cumin or aniseed. A typical Swedish bread.

 

SCANDINAVIAN BREAD

This flat bread accompanies smoked salmon, meat balls, rein deer and is used as sandwich bread. It is becoming increasingly popular all over Europe.

 

NORWEGIAN FLAT BREAD

These are extremely crispy. They are wafer thin, and one of the oldest of Norwegian breads. It contains no leaven and is made in whatever available cereals there are, wheat, barley, rye etc.

SWITZERLAND

 

 

APPLE BREAD

This bread originates from Germany originally, it is round and crusty. It contains a mixture of different flours including rye and barley and also apples and nuts (walnuts).

 

COUNTRY LOAF

Made from ¾ wheat flour and ¼ rye flour, it can sometimes contain walnuts or crushed rye.

 

PLAIT

Known as Zopf, it is made with fermented leaven wheat flour, butter, eggs and milk. Its crust is shiny and its crumb light.

INDIA

 

 

CHAPATI

Made from wholemeal flour they are cooked in a cast iron frying pan. There are many variations which include, clarified butter, oil, celery grains… They are usually quite crisp and replace knives and forks at the table.

 

NAAN

The particularity in making Naan bread is that you have to throw the dough balls against the side of the oven, where they stick and fall off when cooked!! They are usually spiced or flavoured in some way. The main dough is made from yoghurt and white flour and is eaten warm.

MIDDLE EAST

 

 

BARBARI

This Iranian bread is popular for breakfast. It comes in different shapes and sizes and is sprinkled with sesame seeds. It is sometimes oiled before cooking.

 

LAVASH

Well know through out the Far East, this bread is round, flat and crispy.

 

SAMOUN

This is the Far East’s answer to sandwich bread.

TURKEY

 

 

EKMEK

This is one of the most popular Turkish breads, and replaces knives and forks at the table for every meal.

 

PIDE

This flat bread is sprinkled with nigella and gives a peppery taste. This is sometimes replaced by fennel seeds.